Philanthropic Organisations and Non-State Actors

Raymond Saner & Lichia Yiu, (2019)

This paper discusses the constraints and opportunities of providing educational services across borders making reference to hurdles that need to be identified and appropriately addressed such as rules regarding trade in education services as defined by WTO agreements as well as other national rules which a PO investor needs to know, respect and manage such as labour rules covering teaching faculty, educational fees and scholarly grading systems.

Investing by providing education to a DC can be successful under the condition that the PO develops and applies a comprehensive monitoring system that helps the PO understand and constructively manage the investment challenges at Meta, Macro, Meso and Micro level. This paper explains the different levels and provides suggestions how these multiple hurdles can successfully be overcome for the benefits of all parties involved in cross-border educational investment by a non-state actor (PO) in a developing country.

A paper submitted to the UNDP for its “Seminar on Administrative System Reform of Public Service Units in China”, 21-22 September 2013. This paper was later published as a proceeding of the Seminar.